Abhijit Vinayak Banerjee (born 1961) is an Indian economist. He is currently the Ford Foundation International Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Banerjee is a co-founder of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (along with economists Esther Duflo and Sendhil Mullainathan) and a Research Affiliate of Innovations for Poverty Action, a New Haven, Connecticut based research outfit dedicated to creating and evaluating solutions to social and international development problems, and a Member of the Consortium on Financial Systems and Poverty. He is also the recipient of the inaugural Infosys Prize in the category of Social Sciences (Economics).

He attended South Point School and Presidency College, Calcutta, where he completed his B.Sc degree in Economics in 1981. Later, he completed his M.A. in Economics at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi in 1983. Later he went on to obtain a Ph.D. in Economics at Harvard University in 1988. The subject of his doctoral thesis is "Essays in Information Economics".

Abhijit Banerjee is currently the Ford Foundation International Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining MIT, he taught at Harvard and Princeton. His work focuses on development economics. Together with Esther Duflo, Michael Kremer, John List and Sendhil Mullainathan, he has proposed field experiments as an important methodology to discover causal relationships in economics. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2004. He was also honored with the Infosys Prize 2009 in the Social Sciences category of Economics.